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In this article we have discussed Civil Remedies For Victims Of Criminal Breach Of Trust


In the realm of Indian law, the concept of breach of trust encompasses a range of activities where the trust placed by one individual in another is broken. This betrayal not only disrupts personal and professional relationships but also poses a threat to the victim’s financial stability and mental peace. While criminal procedures are often highlighted in dealing with such betrayals, civil remedies offer a parallel route for victims seeking redressal. This article sheds light on the civil remedies available to victims of criminal breach of trust under Indian law, providing a beacon of hope and a path to restitution.

Understanding Criminal Breach of Trust

What is Criminal Breach of Trust?

Under Section 405 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), criminal breach of trust is defined as an act where someone entrusted with property or dominion over it dishonestly misappropriates or converts it to their own use, or dishonestly uses or disposes of that property in violation of any direction of law prescribing the mode of such trust.

The Need for Civil Remedies

While criminal proceedings focus on punishing the offender, they often overlook the victim’s need for compensation and restoration. Civil remedies step in here, providing a framework for recovering damages and reinstating the victim’s financial status.

Civil Remedies For Victims Of Criminal Breach Of Trust Under Indian Law

Filing a Civil Suit for Recovery

1. Suit for Damages

Victims can file a suit for damages, seeking compensation for the losses incurred due to the breach of trust. This requires proving the extent of the loss and its direct link to the accused’s actions.

2. Suit for Specific Performance

In cases where monetary compensation is inadequate, victims may seek a court order for specific performance, compelling the offender to fulfill their original obligations.


Courts can issue injunctions, temporary or permanent, to restrain the offender from further disposing of the property in question until the legal proceedings are concluded.


A declaration from the court can be sought to affirm the victim’s rights over the disputed property, providing legal clarity and protection against further encroachments.

The Legal Process

Filing the Suit

The process begins with the filing of a civil suit in a competent court. This involves drafting a plaint detailing the breach, the damages sought, or the specific performance required.

Evidence and Trial

The civil trial focuses on the presentation of evidence, including documents and witness testimonies, to establish the breach of trust and quantify the resultant damages.

Judgment and Enforcement

Upon proving the case, the court awards a judgment in favor of the victim, which may include monetary compensation or orders for specific actions. The enforcement of the judgment is the final step, ensuring the victim receives the awarded remedy.

Conclusion: A Path to Restitution

Civil remedies for victims of criminal breach of trust under Indian law provide a vital avenue for justice, emphasizing restitution over punishment. By focusing on compensating the victim and restoring their financial and legal status, these remedies underscore the importance of trust in personal and professional relationships. While navigating the legal landscape can be daunting, understanding and utilizing these civil remedies empowers victims to reclaim their rights and move forward with confidence.

FAQ on Civil Remedies for Victims of Criminal Breach of Trust Under Indian Law

1. What is criminal breach of trust?

A: It’s when someone entrusted with property or control over it dishonestly uses or disposes of that property against the terms of the trust.

2. Can a victim of breach of trust file a civil case?

A: Yes, victims can file civil suits for damages, specific performance, or injunctions against the offender.

3. What kind of compensation can be sought in these cases?

A: Victims can seek monetary compensation for the losses incurred or a court order for specific performance to enforce the original terms of the trust.

4. How does one prove damage in a breach of trust case?

A: Through detailed documentation, including financial records, contracts, and any other evidence showing the extent of loss directly linked to the breach.

5. Is it necessary to file a criminal case before seeking civil remedies?

A: No, civil remedies can be pursued independently of criminal proceedings.

6. What is a suit for specific performance?

A: It’s a legal action asking the court to enforce the offender to fulfill their original duties under the trust, rather than paying damages.

7. How long does it take to resolve a civil breach of trust case?

A: The duration varies based on the case’s complexity, but it generally takes several months to years.

8. Can an injunction be granted immediately after filing the case?

A: Yes, courts can issue temporary injunctions to prevent further misuse of the property until the case is resolved.

9. What is the role of evidence in these civil suits?

A: Evidence is crucial for establishing the breach, the link to the offender, and quantifying the damages.

10. Can the victim recover legal costs in a civil suit?

A: Yes, the court can order the offender to pay the victim’s legal costs if the case is decided in the victim’s favor.

11. What happens if the offender does not comply with a court order?

A: The court can enforce the judgment through various means, such as seizure of assets or imposition of further penalties.

12. Are there any time limits for filing a civil suit for breach of trust?

A: Yes, the Limitation Act specifies time limits for various actions, generally three years from the breach date.

13. Can a third party be held liable in a breach of trust case?

A: If a third party knowingly benefits from the breach, they can also be held liable.

14. What if the property is no longer recoverable?

A: The court may order monetary compensation equivalent to the property’s value plus any additional damages.

15. Can breach of trust cases be settled out of court?

A: Yes, parties can agree to a settlement at any stage of the proceedings.

16. What is a declaration in the context of breach of trust?

A: It’s a legal statement by the court affirming the victim’s rights over the disputed property.

17. Can foreign nationals file for civil remedies in India?

A: Yes, if the breach of trust occurred in India, foreign nationals can seek civil remedies under Indian law.

18. How is the amount of damages calculated?

A: It’s based on the actual loss suffered, potential future losses, and sometimes punitive damages for the breach.

19. Can a company file a suit for breach of trust?

A: Yes, companies can file civil suits just like individuals if they are victims of a breach of trust.

20. What is the importance of a lawyer in these cases?

A: A lawyer can navigate the complex legal procedures, represent the victim in court, and maximize the chances of a favorable outcome.

21. Can the terms of the trust affect the civil remedies?

A: Yes, the specific terms and conditions outlined in the trust agreement can influence the available remedies and the case’s outcome.

22. Is mediation an option in breach of trust cases?

A: Yes, parties can opt for mediation to resolve the dispute amicably before or during the legal proceedings.

23. Can civil remedies be sought for breaches of verbal trusts?

A: Yes, but proving the terms and breach of a verbal trust can be more challenging than with written agreements.

24. What if the victim contributed to the breach?

A: If the victim’s actions contributed to the breach, it might reduce the compensation or remedies available.

25. Can breach of trust cases affect criminal proceedings?

A: While separate, the findings in a civil case can influence the perceptions in a criminal case, but they are legally distinct.

26. Are punitive damages awarded in breach of trust cases?

A: Indian law primarily focuses on compensatory damages, but in rare cases, punitive damages may be considered to deter wrongful conduct.

27. Can a breach of trust case be reopened after settlement?

A: Generally, once settled and a settlement agreement is signed, cases cannot be reopened unless fraud or misrepresentation in the settlement process is proven.

28. What happens if the offender is bankrupt?

A: Recovery may be difficult if the offender is legally declared bankrupt, as they may not have assets to satisfy the judgment.

29. Can future earnings be targeted for compensation?

A: It’s challenging, but future earnings or assets may sometimes be targeted to satisfy the judgment, depending on the case specifics.

30. What is the first step a victim should take upon discovering a breach of trust?

A: Consult a legal professional to understand the options and prepare for filing a civil suit or seeking other legal remedies.


1. Indian Penal Code

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