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In this article we have discussed about Benefits And Limitations Of Arbitration In Resolving Commercial Disputes In India


Arbitration has become a popular method for resolving commercial disputes in India. This process allows businesses to settle disagreements outside the traditional court system. It is seen as a flexible, private, and efficient way to reach a decision. However, like any method, it has both advantages and disadvantages. This article explores the benefits and limitations of arbitration in the Indian context, providing a balanced view for businesses considering this dispute resolution mechanism.

What is Arbitration?

Arbitration is a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR). It involves a neutral third party, called an arbitrator, who listens to the arguments from both sides and makes a decision. This decision is usually binding, meaning it must be followed, similar to a court judgment.

Benefits And Limitations Of Arbitration In Resolving Commercial Disputes In India

Benefits of Arbitration in India

Faster Resolution

One of the main advantages of arbitration is its speed. Court cases in India can take years to resolve due to a backlog of cases. Arbitration, on the other hand, can be completed in a few months. This quick resolution saves time and allows businesses to focus on their operations.


Arbitration proceedings are private. This means that the details of the dispute and the final decision are not made public. This privacy is beneficial for companies that do not want their disputes to be in the public eye, protecting their reputation.

Expertise of the Arbitrator

Parties can choose an arbitrator with specific expertise related to their dispute. This ensures that the person making the decision understands the complexities of the issue, leading to a more informed and appropriate outcome.


The arbitration process is more flexible than court proceedings. Parties can decide the rules, location, language, and timing of the arbitration. This flexibility can make the process more convenient and tailored to the specific needs of the parties.

Limitations of Arbitration in India


While arbitration can be quicker than court proceedings, it is not always cheaper. The fees for arbitrators, especially those with specialized expertise, can be high. Additionally, the costs for the venue, travel, and legal representation can add up, making arbitration expensive for some parties.

Limited Scope for Appeal

The ability to appeal an arbitration decision is very limited compared to court judgments. This can be a drawback if a party believes the decision was unfair or incorrect. The grounds for challenging an arbitration award in India are restricted and generally do not include an appeal on the merits of the case.

Enforcement of Awards

Enforcing arbitration awards can sometimes be challenging, especially if the losing party refuses to comply. While the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996, facilitates the enforcement of awards, it can still require court intervention, which may delay the process.

Risk of Bias

Although arbitrators are supposed to be neutral, there is a risk of bias, especially if the arbitrator is chosen by one of the parties. Ensuring fairness requires careful selection of arbitrators and, in some cases, the appointment of a panel of arbitrators.

Conclusion: Balancing the Benefits and Limitations

Arbitration offers a viable alternative to traditional court litigation for resolving commercial disputes in India, with significant benefits such as speed, confidentiality, expertise, and flexibility. However, parties considering arbitration should also be aware of its limitations, including costs, limited appeal options, enforcement challenges, and potential bias. By understanding both the advantages and disadvantages, businesses can make informed decisions about whether arbitration is the right choice for their dispute resolution needs.

FAQ on Arbitration for Resolving Commercial Disputes in India

1. What is arbitration?

Arbitration is a process where a neutral third party, known as an arbitrator, makes a decision to resolve a dispute outside the court system.

2. Is arbitration in India binding?

Yes, arbitration awards in India are generally binding, meaning the parties must follow the decision.

3. How is an arbitrator selected?

Parties can mutually agree on an arbitrator. If they cannot agree, an appointing authority, often specified in the arbitration agreement, will select the arbitrator.

4. Can international arbitrators preside over disputes in India?

Yes, parties can choose international arbitrators for disputes in India, subject to any restrictions in their arbitration agreement.

5. What laws govern arbitration in India?

The Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996, is the primary law governing arbitration in India.

6. How long does arbitration take in India?

The duration varies but arbitration is generally faster than court litigation, often taking a few months to a year.

7. Are arbitration proceedings confidential?

Yes, arbitration proceedings and awards are confidential, protecting the privacy of the disputing parties.

8. Can arbitration decisions be appealed?

Arbitration awards have limited grounds for appeal, mainly around procedural irregularities or the arbitrator’s jurisdiction.

9. What are the costs involved in arbitration?

Costs include arbitrator fees, venue charges, legal fees, and administrative expenses. These can vary widely based on the case.

10. Can arbitration clauses be enforced in India?

Yes, arbitration clauses in contracts are enforceable in India, provided they meet legal requirements.

11. How is an arbitration award enforced in India?

Arbitration awards are enforced like a court decree, through the Indian legal system.

12. What types of disputes can be arbitrated?

Most commercial disputes, including contracts, trade, and investment disagreements, can be arbitrated.

13. Can consumer disputes be arbitrated in India?

Yes, consumer disputes can be arbitrated if there is an arbitration clause in the agreement.

14. Is arbitration suitable for all commercial disputes?

While arbitration is suitable for many disputes, it may not be ideal for cases requiring extensive public scrutiny or where interim relief is frequently needed.

15. Can a party refuse arbitration?

If there’s a binding arbitration clause in the contract, refusal can lead to legal enforcement of the arbitration agreement.

16. How does one initiate arbitration?

To initiate arbitration, a party typically sends a notice to the other party invoking the arbitration clause in their agreement.

17. What is the role of the courts in arbitration?

Courts can play a supporting role, such as in the appointment of arbitrators or enforcement of awards, but do not decide the case merits.

18. Can arbitration awards be challenged?

Yes, but only on limited grounds such as procedural lapses or arbitrator impartiality issues.

19. What is an ad hoc arbitration?

Ad hoc arbitration does not involve an administering institution. The parties manage the arbitration process themselves.

20. What is institutional arbitration?

Institutional arbitration is administered by an established arbitration institution that provides rules and support services.

21. Can arbitration proceedings take place online?

Yes, with the advancement of technology, online arbitrations are increasingly common.

22. What happens if a party does not comply with an arbitration award?

The other party can approach the court to enforce the award as a decree.

23. Is mediation different from arbitration?

Yes, mediation involves a mediator helping parties reach a voluntary settlement, unlike the binding decisions in arbitration.

24. Can arbitration be chosen after a dispute arises?

Yes, parties can agree to arbitrate even after a dispute has arisen, if they both agree to it.

25. Are arbitration agreements valid in all contracts?

Yes, as long as they meet legal requirements, arbitration agreements in contracts are valid.

26. Can arbitration handle cross-border disputes?

Yes, arbitration is commonly used for resolving international commercial disputes.

27. What is a partial award in arbitration?

A partial award resolves some but not all issues in dispute, allowing certain matters to be decided early.

28. Can arbitration awards accrue interest?

Yes, arbitration awards can include interest from the date of the award until payment is made.

29. How can parties ensure impartiality of arbitrators?

Parties can include specific selection criteria in the arbitration agreement and conduct due diligence on potential arbitrators.

30. Is arbitration the best choice for resolving commercial disputes?

Arbitration can be the best choice for many disputes due to its speed, privacy, and flexibility, but parties should consider their specific needs and the dispute’s complexity.

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